Varicose veins of the feet: symptoms and treatment

Varicose veins — is a systemic disease that can hit the blood vessels throughout the body. Its essence consists in the dysfunction of valves that control the direction of the current of blood. Because of this there is a build-up of excessive amount of fluid in the veins, under the action of which the wall stretch and lose their elasticity.

the symptoms of varicose veins

The more often the medical literature focused on the symptoms and treatment of varicose veins on the legs, because this kind of disease is considered the most widespread: according to statistics, more than 80% of all cases of varicose veins occur particularly on the lower limbs. However, for most patients, the diagnosis of varicose veins of the legs is a surprise, and its detection happens at an advanced stage. All this testifies to the lack of awareness of the population about the dangers that door of varicose veins.

The characteristics, the causes and mechanism of development of varicose veins of the legs

The main characteristic of the varicose disease of the feet is its scope. The changes are exposed to surface water and deep runs from vienna to the great length. Because the feet represent fairly large and of long duration of the load, the valves in the circulatory system may begin to weaken even in childhood. Therefore, the detection of varicose veins on the legs, often in young people and young girls.

This is for the lower limbs is characteristic of this phenomenon, as hidden varicose veins: in the context of the changes exprims the veins and unpleasant symptoms there are no visible signs of the disease. Therefore, the disease is about one-third of all cases revealed in advanced stages.

In order to proceed to effective treatment of varicose veins of the nodes on the legs, the physician must understand the reasons of its appearance. Because even when the use of drastic methods of 80% of patients arrives recurrence of varicose veins, particular attention is due to be granted to reduce the impact on the processes causing varicose veins factors. It is:

  • a hereditary predisposition is not controlled, a factor which, nevertheless, we can retain the standard of prevention;
  • the physical impact of the increased load on the feet (a long-standing and the seat, the habit of crossing your legs, excess weight, weight);
  • physiological impact of hormonal changes and hormonal drugs (most often for contraception), metabolic disorders, lack of physical activity;
  • the causes of chronic diseases of the liver, kidney, injuries, and systematic tug of the soft tissues of the lower limbs, the institute, the compression of vienna in the abdominal cavity.

Depending on the location of the veins of the doctors to differentiate between several types of varicose veins in the legs:

  1. At a superficial level. Results in the appearance bluish red or stasis of the grid on the feet, which first recalls the spider's web, and then the texture quite thick, twisting lines.
  2. Deep. Expressed by the defeat is not visible from the outside of the inspection plexus and vascular. The pain in the veins of the lower limbs when the varicose the expansion of this type of more and more intense, the greater the risk of complications.
  3. Combined, when changes are exposed and shallow, and the superficial veins.

The determination of the causes of varicose veins of the feet and elimination are closely connected. First of all, it is important to eliminate the factors having the most negative impact on the state of the vein.

At the time of diagnosis of venous changes, it is important to differentiate with other diseases. For example, varicose veins below the knee looks like a cyst Becker, and accompanied by similar symptoms.

the phase of varicose veins

Stage

The appearance of the first signs of varicose veins on the legs that goes on in the advanced stages, when venous valves are discharging their duties less than 50%. On the first or the zero phase of varicose veins, which is known as the "stage of compensation", the discomfort does not occur, as the changes visible. The detection of the initial stage of varicose veins in the legs occurs when a careful examination of its members flebologia.

In a second phase, of varicose veins, which is known as the "subcompensated", the changes are expressed quite well:

  • under the skin see the edges of the large veins, but they may not protrude above the surface of the skin;
  • on the surface of the skin on the thighs and behind the knees is clearly visible in figure fine varicose grid of capillaries blue or red;
  • in the evening, my legs economic swollen;
  • at night, the calf muscles reduces the spasms.

This phase of varicose veins of the lower limbs distinguishes the worsening of the symptomatology, which diminishes after the rest.

During the last stage of varicose veins occurs decompensation: the body can not meet the needs of the tissues with oxygen, and the valves in the veins of 90% lose their function. The status of the members deteriorates due to insufficient blood supply. During this phase of varicose veins is characteristic of the reduction of the capacity of tissues to regenerate. The abundance of the complications, worsens the patient's general condition. The symptoms of the final stage of varicose veins remains.

The symptoms

The most common, and the symptom onset of varicose veins are the sore feet at the end of the day. It appears during the change of deep and superficial vessels, and is a signal of inadequate blood supply to soft tissue. In some cases, the pain is the only symptom of varicose veins of the deep veins of the lower limbs. When the surface modification of the vessels indicates the development of the appearance of the varicose disease of the grid on the legs, which often creates only an aesthetic inconvenience.

The nature of the pain when varicose veins on the different stages of the development of the disease may vary:

  • in the initial phase felt a slight discomfort, a block of the fatigue;
  • with the progression up to the second stage, you receive a burning sensation in the feet varicose veins, that is often located under the back knee;
  • a pain tiraillante when the varicose veins of the lower limbs is accompanied by 2 and 3 the stage of the disease, at the same time, there may occur a cramp in the calf;
  • acute pain, resulting in claudication, arise in the late stages of the disease.

In addition to explicit physical discomfort, the disease is accompanied by external changes. A large part of the patients complained that they scratch at the feet — when the varicose veins it is considered a normal phenomenon, which shows that a process ischemic. Thin varicose veins in the grille, which practically is not worried in the early stages, with time plays more strong, turning into a thick interlacing of thickened blood vessels. Any physical activity, including coughing, sneezing, or the long nordic walking, can lead to a rupture, increased capillaries, and sometimes, and veins. The blood flows under the skin, formants a hematoma.

The presence of bruises on the legs at the varicose veins, there is a progression of the disease, excessive traction and thinning of the veins.

The appearance of red spots on the legs at the varicose veins, peeling of the skin, its thinning, and exposure to injury evidenced by atrophic process which characterizes the late stages of the disease. On the complications demonstrates the redness of the leg, which is accompanied by pain and lameness. This kind of symptom is characteristic of phlebitis and thrombophlebitis. If the patient turns the leg, it indicates a severe obstruction of the veins and the beginning of the process necrotic.

varicose veins in the legs diagnosis

The diagnosis

The ease of diagnosis of varicose veins on the legs of the hype, it is not always vessels come to the surface. To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor will pass the inspection and spend a number of search tools:

  • duplex scan, or ULTRASOUND on the lower end — when varicose veins is applied first to determine the degree of stretching of the vascular wall, the nature of the blood flow to them and to the detection of blood clots;
  • the x-ray ends with the contrast of the standard functional examination of the varicose veins of the lower limbs, which allows to determine the permeability of the vessels;
  • The MRI of the gold standard modern diagnosis of varicose veins of the lower extremities, which allows to assess the functionality of the valves of the veins, to identify the foci of ischemia in the soft tissues, to discover blood clots and other pathological changes occurred on a background of varicose veins.

To refine a complete image of the disease is prescribed in the laboratory: koagulogrammu to assess the risk of formation of thrombi, the sharing and the biochemical analysis of blood.

Characteristics of treatment

The treatment of varicose veins on the legs takes care of phlebology. After the determination of the degree of pathological changes doctor chooses the most effective, in his opinion, methods of treatment. Unfortunately, to permanently get rid of varicose of the grid on the legs is not, like the disease system, and even the modern methods of treatment provide the same long-term, but not 100% a sustainable outcome.

According to the statistics, even after the use of drastic methods of treatment of varicose veins of the lower limbs in 80% of patients within 5 years occurs to a relapse.

In the initial stages of varicose veins on legs treatment preferably conservative. Its foundation is the use of local and systemic drugs:

  • anticoagulant, reducing the blood viscosity and to improve the nutrition of tissues;
  • antiplatelet agents reduce the risk of formation of thrombi and to improve the trophism of the tissue;
  • venotonic to prevent the stretching of the veins, reduce inflammation and swelling.

When the discomfort in the varicose veins prescribed NSAIDS. The drugs of this group reduce the pain, prevent the development of complications.

What to do if itching girl varicose veins legs does not sleep, do chores as usual and makes you nervous? Worth trying an ointment or gel with cooling effect. They have no impact on the veins will help it to cope with the illness, but enough to quickly remove the symptom.

In addition to the conservative treatment, doctors often use methods of integrated treatment of varicose veins of the lower limbs, when simultaneously drug, the influence use minimally invasive and the surgery. This scheme applies when the symptoms and to a wide dissemination of venous of the grid. What are the steps to take and what to do if the spider veins on the legs suddenly begins to grow, decides to phlebology. By doing this, it takes into account all aspects of the development of the disease, the individual characteristics of the organism and the health problems that may become contraindications for certain procedures.

What are the methods used to solve the diseases of the vessels:

  1. Photocoagulation laser. Applies if the varicose veins is not spent 2-and 3-phase, when you have small "star" on the surface of the skin. Method painless and effective, but expensive. A guarantee to 100% the rate of healing is not, as the elimination of visible blood vessels, while the causes of the disease are recorded. Apply in the early stages to correct the cosmetic defects.
  2. The sclerotherapy. Thin and average thickness of the vessels injected sclerosant, which seals the skyline of vienna, with the exception of the system of blood circulation. The procedure is virtually painless and relatively inexpensive, but has a lot of contraindications. Used on the 1,2, and sometimes 3 stages.
  3. Phlebectomy — classic excision of veins pathological by bites or cuts on the skin. This method eliminates the surface varicose veins on the thighs and shins. After the operation remain visible scars, but the operation is the only effective upon the execution of the forms of varicose veins.

The held surgical or minimally invasive intervention does not fully get rid of varicose veins. The patient will need to regularly visit phlebologist, take medication to maintain the tone of veins and have to wear a compression garment.

varicose veins prevention

Contraindications

The experts attribute to contra-indications at the varicose veins on their feet the whole action which can add the flow in the vessels of the lower limbs. It is:

  • prolonged exposure in poses;
  • lift weights;
  • seat back or a cross of the legs.

The sick is worthwhile to avoid ingestion of alcohol, which promotes an increase in blood viscosity and relaxes the walls of the vessels. Negative Impact on the course of the disease can and all. Therefore, after a diagnosis, you need to give up bad habits.

Complications

Thrombosis and inflammatory processes in the walls of the veins which have been mentioned previously, is not the only one, that the spider veins on the legs are dangerous for the patient in terms of complications. Because of the violation of the blood circulation are suffering not only vases, but also of the soft tissues, that is why one of the consequences of varicose veins on the legs mentioned problems with muscles and skin:

  • dermatitis, accompanied by itching rash, by an ulceration of the skin, itching;
  • eczema, accompanied by a cracking of the skin;
  • changes necrotic skin up to the formation of gangrene;
  • ulcers trophic;
  • the atrophy of the muscles.

Often, during the progression of the disease and the excessive pull of the vessel walls patient is at risk of encountering a bleeding from varicose veins of varicose veins of the lower limbs. It can also be closed when the blood accumulates in the muscles and under the skin and form a hematoma, or open. The second option is fraught with the loss of large amounts of blood and the emergence of a coma, especially if the patient is taking antiplatelet drugs and anticoagulants.

This complication of the varicose disease of the veins of the lower limbs can not only cause trauma, but a small amount of physical effort, for example, coughing or sudden movement.

Some of the most dangerous complications of varicose veins of the lower limb includes pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction. They occur due to tearing of a blood clot in the femoral artery and of the migration on the system of circulation of blood in the coronary and pulmonary vessels. The mortality rate during such processes is extremely high, so that the patient it is important to always monitor the state of health, and is an urgent need to consult a doctor, when the difficulty of breathing and pain in the chest.