Varicose veins – the process of the disease, which is characterized by an increase of the lumen of the vessels, ensuring the flow of blood, thinning of their walls and the deformation up to the formation of nodes and fractures. For anatomical reasons of the disease are most often detected in the veins of the lower limbs.
The external signs of varicose veins are not exclusively aesthetic problem: the astrisques", the veins prominent and dark shades – only the symptoms of circulatory disorders which are hazardous to health and life consequences.
The mechanism of development of varicose veins on the legs
The mechanism of development of varicose veins bind with a decrease of the functionality of the valves of the veins. They are exposed to high mechanical loads, therefore, under the action of genetic factors, hormonal of the swell, the inflammation in the tissues of the lower limbs and load, weaken and does not prevent the reverse flow of blood. The inflammation occurs on a background of stagnation phenomena in high viscosity of the blood, physical inactivity or a long stay in the upright or sitting position.
The pressure of the excess volume of blood on the walls of the veins deform them, depriving them of the functionality and muscle and nerve venous wall, which provide a stable tone. The stasis of the blood, hyperextension of blood vessels and the inflammation of their walls often lead to the formation of clumps of red blood cells, which overlap the clearance of veins.
Varicose veins on the legs, therefore, is not the surface problem of mechanical damage to sub-dermal vessel or phenomena, and the deeper the violation of the circulation of the blood, dveloppe of inclined to the illness of a patient under the influence of risk factors.
The medical treatment of the disease aims to:
- tone the walls of blood vessels;
- the removal of the inflammation;
- the dilution of the blood;
- prevent the formation of blood clots.
In the absence of adequate treatment, while dangerous varicose veins of the lower limbs, can become a reality for each of the patients with this disease.
In 80% of cases, varicose veins of the leg veins women suffer from. The main dangerous than the spider veins on the legs of women – the likelihood of the early development of the disease because of flare-ups hormone during puberty or pregnancy. In the time of gestation of the fetus is the only possible therapy soft, not rendering to the teratogenicity of the effect. An additional load on the feet, the lack of the intensive care unit and the load when it attempts may stimulate the worsening of the disease.
This threatens varicose veins?
Generally, thrombophlebitis and other dangerous effects of varicose veins occur on the 3rd stage of venous insufficiency. The symptoms of advanced vascular:
- the constant heaviness in the legs;
- the darkening of the skin in the ankle area.
The violation of blood circulation in the limbs cause of the dermatitis, eczema, inflammation of the skin.
Telangiectasia-the least dangerous, is the result of venous insufficiency. The condition is characterized by the appearance of vascular "grids" and "star", which are accompanied by edema, fatigue legs, an event of numbness and nocturnal cramps in the calves. The cosmetic defect – one of the reasons why women are turning to the phlebologist in the early stages of varicose veins. In an effort to preserve the feet of the beautiful, the patient care about their health.
The bleeding and ruptures of varicose veins
Thrombophlebitis – thrombosis on the background of inflammation of the vein wall and the stagnation of the blood in a large container. To developed the disease is characterized by the joint and pain to palpation (probing) the victim of a ship, as well as the redness of the skin around a blood clot. Thrombophlebitis develops in approximately 25% of patients who had been diagnosed varicose veins of the vein. Blood clots located in the superficial veins, have a low risk of tearing of the personal injury, but in the case of the promotion of a blood clot along or subcutaneously perforated vessel requires immediate hospitalization.
Deep vein thrombosis is far more dangerous than the spider veins and thrombophlebitis. The blood clots formed in the deep vessels of the lower limbs, and are capable of separation and obstruction of the pulmonary artery, which leads to death. The characteristic symptoms of thrombosis deep-vein – hard swelling of the limbs, resulting in a short time, and strong arching pain in the calf or thigh muscle. The spread of the disease on the deep vessels of the lower extremities can be observed on the last stages of varicose veins.
Ulcer trophic – the depth of the defect of the dermis, which is formed late as a result of the violation of blood circulation in the superficial layers of the skin. It is a long healing painful injury, difficult to have the therapy.
Varicose veins of the lower limbs is included in a number of risk factors in the development of such a disease in other vessels of the pelvic organs, of men and women.
The curative measures against the consequences of varicose veins
The treatment of complications of varicose veins on the legs usually starts with a drug treatment of the primary disease.
To reduce the deformation of the vessels, which dilate due to loss of tone, are appointed venotonic on the basis of hesperidin, diosmin, esculin, and other in the case of components.
In the case of inflammation of the vein wall are assigned to the preparations of the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of tablets and gels. The oral anti-inflammatory recommended when the thrombophlebitis.
The decrease of the viscosity of the blood is performed with the help of the local application of ointments with anticoagulant components and the oral administration of derivatives of the routine and methylxanthines, which have antiagregantami properties .
Demonstrations of surface varicose veins on the legs (including telangiectasia) are eliminated by the method of sclerotherapy (gluing of the walls of the victim to a container using a drug). The procedure does not do serious harm to health and does not disturb the circulation of the blood, because the time of the rehabilitation of the function of the superficial veins go deep vessels.
When the thrombosis of the deep veins is assigned to the bed rest, intravenous (iv) administration of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents to control the viscosity of the blood. The surgical treatment of thrombosis deep vessels and thrombophlebitis (including the great saphenous vein) shown in the case where there is a high risk of occlusion of the pulmonary artery. The treatment of venous ulcers aims at the stimulation of wound healing and the treatment of the primary disease.
Prevention of complications of varicose veins which includes measures to:
- the wearing of a compression machine;
- the exception of a long sitting, and standing;
- the choice of a shoe with a heel of 2.5 to 6 cm;
- the enrichment of the diet in fiber and source of vitamins B1, c, E, and f;
- respect of the normal water (2.5 l);
- contrast water treatments;
- the refusal of the hormonal contraception (effect of COC on the bodies of women includes an increase in the risk of thrombosis);
- the traditional methods (compresses, baths, and other).
The early diagnosis of varicose veins, the time of treatment and a reduction of the influence of risk factors prevents the development of complications of the disease. The application of minimally invasive surgical techniques, in some cases, eliminates not only aesthetic problems, but the likelihood of a worsening of the disease.