Varicose veins of the small pelvis are a common disease today, affecting many women between the ages of 25 and 40. Otherwise, the disease is called chronic pelvic pain syndrome or pelvic venous congestion syndrome. The cause of this problem is the reverse flow of blood through the vein of the ovary, which occurs as a result of squeezing the blood vessels. That is, venous expansion of the pelvic veins is a disease directly related to a decrease in the elasticity of the venous wall.
Many doctors consider this pathology something exotic and rarely make such a diagnosis. This is due to the fact that the pathology can manifest itself in various symptoms, and a strong pain syndrome always predominates. For this reason, most specialists take varicose veins of the pelvic organs for various hormonal or gynecological diseases of an inflammatory nature. But the quality of life of a woman and the ability to have children in the future depend on the timely diagnosis of varicose veins of the small pelvis. Why does this disease develop, what symptoms are manifested and how to treat pelvic varicose veins? We will talk about all this in this article.
Features of the development of varicose veins of the small pelvis
Such a phenomenon as varicose veins of the ovaries and uterus has been known in medicine for a long time. This disease was first identified in the 1980s and has not been fully studied to date. And every year, cases of this pathology are found more and more often, as the lifestyle of most people has changed during this period. Most people today have sedentary jobs and unhealthy lifestyles. The mechanism of development of varicose veins of the small pelvis is triggered by various hormonal changes, as well as by the increasing pressure of the uterus on the vessels of the small pelvis, which is usually observed during pregnancy.
In the vessels of the small pelvis, stagnation begins to occur and provoke the development of the disease.
The pathology development algorithm is as follows:
- the vascular system of the small pelvis is quite complex and consists of large vessels, which in turn are divided into smaller veins. In addition, the structure of the small pelvis in women and men is somewhat different, which explains the occurrence of this disorder mainly in women;
- there is squeezing of blood vessels and blockage of veins, due to which the tone of the vascular walls changes and the process of blood flow from the deep veins of the pelvis is disrupted;
- due to malfunctions, the pelvic veins are unable to perform their functions properly. This leads to the progression of venous valve insufficiency;
- stagnation begins to occur in the vessels of the small pelvis, which leads to the development of varicose veins of the small pelvis.
Unlike the varicose veins of the legs, which is accompanied by the protrusion of the veins in the lower limbs, the varicose veins of the small pelvis in women remain unnoticed, as the veins located deep in the small pelvis are affected. Therefore, many women may not even suspect that they have this pathology. However, there is one main symptom that characterizes the presence of a problem in almost all cases. And this symptom is pain syndrome, which is characterized by intensity and duration, and is usually observed before critical days or after intense physical exertion.
Reasons for the development of pelvic venous congestion syndrome
As mentioned above, the disease mainly occurs due to changes in hormone levels. And the most susceptible to the development of this pathological process are women of childbearing age. In particular, pregnant girls and women who work in difficult physical conditions are exposed to varicose veins of the small pelvis. In some cases, this type of varicose veins can develop in adolescence, which is also accompanied by a change in hormone levels.
The most common cause of the development of the disease is pregnancy.
But unlike the course of the disease at a more mature age, in this case the pathology is asymptomatic. And the only thing that allows you to suspect a problem is an increase in the amount of vaginal discharge. That is, we can say that the main reasons for the development of varicose veins in the small pelvis are hormonal changes in the body and pregnancy. But there are also other reasons for the development of the disease:
- congenital dysplasia of connective tissue. This phenomenon is observed in 30% of people and is characterized by thinning and tortuosity of the veins, as well as weakness of the venous valves;
- heavy or multiple birth. Various complications during the birth process or the birth of a large fetus lead to a violation of the outflow of blood in the veins of the small pelvis;
- pregnancy with several fetuses at the same time. This leads to an increase in the load on the body, especially on the vessels of the small pelvis;
- some gynecological diseases;
- long-term use of hormonal contraceptives;
- hormone treatment;
- retroflection of the uterus.
There are also the following factors that provoke the development of varicose veins of the small pelvis:
- intense physical exertion, such as constant lifting of weights;
- standing or sedentary work;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- increased estrogen levels;
- sexual dysfunctions, such as a lack of orgasms;
- frequent use of broken relationships.
But the most common reason for the development of pathology is still pregnancy. During this period of life, nearly 30% of women suffer from chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Basically, the symptoms of the disease begin to appear after 8 weeks of pregnancy.
Depending on the nature of the course, varicose veins of the small pelvis can be of 2 forms:
- varicose veins of the perineum and external genital organs. If the disease progresses, varicose veins can spread to the inner surface of the thigh;
- pelvic venous congestion syndrome.
This classification is not widespread in medicine, since both of these forms occur simultaneously as a consequence of each other. Enlargement of the veins of the vulva is quite often observed in pregnant women, and in most cases the pathology disappears by itself after childbirth, but not always. Depending on the size of the damaged veins and the place of formation of the pathology, 3 degrees are distinguished:
- first degree. The damaged vein reaches a diameter of no more than 5 mm, is localized in any venous plexus of the small pelvis and is characterized by a corkscrew-shaped course of blood vessels;
- second degree. The diameter of the vein can vary from 6 to 10 mm and is usually observed with the total type of varicose veins, located in the ovaries or uterus;
- third grade. The damaged vein exceeds 10 mm in diameter with the total form of varicose veins or main localization.
Depending on the degree of development of the disease, an adequate method of treatment is selected. With the first and second degree of varicose veins of the small pelvis, the doctor usually prescribes conservative treatment, which consists in changing the lifestyle, performing special exercises and using drugs. But the third stage of the pathology can only be cured with the help of surgical intervention.
Symptoms of varicose veins of the small pelvis
A disease such as varicose veins of the small pelvis, the symptoms of which are different, is often masked by other diseases of the organs of the reproductive system. The main sign of the pathology is a pronounced pain syndrome in the lower abdomen, which appears for no apparent reason and can be administered to the lumbar region or perineum. In addition, the pain is usually accompanied by unfounded mucous vaginal discharge, which increases in the second phase of the menstrual cycle.
Symptoms: severe sharp pains in the lower abdomen before and during menstruation.
Also, if you have pelvic varicose veins, the symptoms may be as follows:
- severe sharp pains in the lower abdomen before and during menstruation;
- increased sensitivity of the perineum and vagina;
- violation of the menstrual cycle;
- a feeling of heaviness in the small pelvis during prolonged stay in an upright position;
- itching and discomfort in the vulva area;
- the presence of protruding veins and varicose veins on the perineum, characteristic of varicose veins;
- discomfort, discomfort during intimacy.
There may also be problems with childbirth and a violation of the urination process, for example, its frequency. And in the case of such a form of the disease as varicose enlargement of the genitals, bleeding and thrombophlebitis of the veins of the perineum can appear in an acute form. Symptoms can be mild or pronounced, and there can also be a symptom or a whole complex of signs. This is what makes it difficult to diagnose such a phenomenon as varicose veins of the pelvic organs in women.
The consequences of varicose veins of the small pelvis
This type of varicose veins is not an extremely dangerous disease. And timely diagnosis of pathology will quickly eliminate an unpleasant phenomenon with the help of a properly selected course of treatment. But it is usually quite difficult to diagnose the disease in a timely manner, and many women live with this problem without even knowing it. And with the course of the disease, the following serious complications begin to develop in the body:
- dysfunction of the reproductive system, leading to infertility;
- neurasthenia due to pain syndrome;
- fear of intimacy due to constant pain during intercourse;
- inflammation of the uterus and appendages;
- bladder disease;
- bleeding of the uterus.
Varicose veins of the small pelvis in women without proper treatment continue to develop and spread to adjacent organs and parts of the body. And in 5% of cases, there is a possibility of developing venous thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism, which are life-threatening diseases.
Diagnosis and treatment of varicose veins of the small pelvis
In view of the generalization of the signs and the localization of the symptoms of the disease, varicose veins of the small pelvis are difficult to diagnose. And only 20 years ago, the correct diagnosis was made only in 2% of cases. Misdiagnosis of the problem sometimes also led to the removal of the uterus, which could have been avoided with the use of modern diagnostic equipment. Today, to make the correct diagnosis, a comprehensive comprehensive examination is carried out with the participation of a gynecologist and a phlebologist.
A popular type of treatment for the disease is laparoscopy.
After a thorough questioning and examination of the patient, the doctor prescribes the most accurate methods for diagnosing pelvic varicose veins today:
- Doppler ultrasound of blood vessels;
- Ultrasound of the venous system;
- selective ovary;
- computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging;
Also, the doctor can prescribe additional studies, for example, blood tests and X-rays, thanks to which you can more accurately assess the patient's condition. After making an accurate diagnosis, the doctor selects the most appropriate treatment, the purpose of which is:
- normalization of vascular tone;
- better blood supply to tissues;
- elimination of symptoms;
- prevention of the development of stagnation and various complications.
Treatment of varicose veins of the pelvic veins should be complex and can consist of basic drugs and therapy, surgery and treatment with folk remedies. Basic therapy for the disease includes:
- regular remedial gymnastics;
- special diet;
- cold and hot shower;
- wearing special underwear.
Also, if necessary, you should review your daily routine. If the reason for the development of varicose veins was physical overload due to the specifics of the work, then it is necessary to move on to simpler work. Medical treatment of pelvic varicose veins consists in the use of the following drugs:
- hormonal drugs.
Surgical intervention is prescribed only in the advanced stage of varicose enlargement, with the ineffectiveness of conservative treatment or if it is impossible to eliminate the pain syndrome. Among other things, the doctor may recommend the use of herbal remedies, which include dandelion, horse chestnut or chaga.