The defeat of the veins of the lower limbs is extremely popular. The disease is subject to more than 25% of the inhabitants of the planet. The varicosities remarkable aspect vascular mesh on the hips, the legs, the weight in the legs. Knowing what are the complications dangerous causes of varicose veins of the lower limbs: the education of ulcers trophic, the risk of sudden death from thrombosis of the pulmonary artery, every man must take care of their health and analyze them, not to or if it belongs to a risk group, have not appeared if the first signs of varicose veins.
The causes of the disease
Vienna – vessels, on which the blood with the products of exchange of tissues and of carbon dioxide progresses to the heart. The peculiarity of their walls – low content of elastic fibers request for information. When any violation of blood flow occurs in the expansion of the lumen of the vein, they are getting longer, the Plasma goes into the surrounding tissue, disrupted traffic flow in the small vessels. The blood is pumped into the veins of the lower limbs thanks to the work of the muscles. The reverse current-preventing valves. During the expansion of the light valves are not doing their job. The changes of the venous wall, the surrounding tissue determines the clinical development of the disease. The only circumstance for the appearance of varicose veins of the lower limbs genetic inferiority of the structure of the vascular wall. Spider veins is related to a violation of the synthesis of the protein collagen. There are predisposing factors:
- excess weight;
- the hormonal change of the background, which leads to relaxation and expansion of the venous wall (pregnancy);
- of the disease and the state, the cause disorders of the blood circulation and the defeat of the wall of the veins (diabetes, alcoholism, thrombophilia);
- a poor diet with lack of proteins, food intake, causing fluid retention, and constipation;
- the prolonged stay in a sitting position;
- activities related to the long finding in a standing position;
- the wearing of high-heeled shoes;
- the use of corsets and the narrow cloth;
- a physical work;
- a surgical operation.
The symptoms of varicose veins of the lower limbs
It is important to have an idea about the main symptoms of varicose veins of the lower limbs.
- Modification of the surface appearance of the vein. On the feet and legs, you may notice the first signs of defeat, because the pumping of the blood there is suffering, even in the early stages of the disease. The first signs of venous disease – the appearance of small vascular "star". This extension of the network of veins, and they resemble small purple or dark purple "octopus". Such a sign may not be a symptom of varicose veins, but more often it reports its initial manifestations.
- Typical symptoms of varicose veins on the legs bad omen, the appearance of sites of thickening of the large veins, around which were scattered a network of smaller, the contours of which have the blue or the purple. If we consider the picture of varicose veins of the lower limbs, this characteristic is visible to the naked eye. As the disease progresses, the violations are visible above – on the hips.
- The pain and heaviness in the legs. Patients with varicose veins marked by the emergence of arching pain in the muscles of the leg in response to pressure exerted on the lower limbs (walking, a long-standing on legs) on palpation of the calf muscles discomfort the strongest.
- After a stay of relaxation and find it in the horizontal position of the pain and the severity of the recoil, but the return to normal business with, make themselves known. This complex of symptoms in the varicose the expansion has received the name of syndrome of "heavy legs". In the night worried about the cramps in the calves. If the inspection does not identify the changes of surface vessels, it must be assumed varicose veins of the defeat of the deep veins.
- The swelling of the legs begins in the area of the stop, and then the swelling rise above, when a person notices that the shoes in the evening, becomes more and more narrow, it is difficult to fix the upper part of the boots. This symptom of varicose veins is more pronounced after the stress of the evening. It is necessary to pay attention to the condition of the calves after a night of sleep – prognosis consider the preservation of the swelling of the morning. This means that the varicosities ceases to be offset. Contained the bloodstream, leading to complications. The pockets to the lower sections of the member may be accompanied by pruritus.
- The pigmentation of the skin on the road affected by the veins around them, in places of injury. Subcutaneous fiber swells and condenses (lipodermatosclerosis). Perhaps the desquamation and the dryness of the skin. The eating disorders of the skin happens at his thinning, the foot in the tibia, acquiring a cyanotic hue.
- The violation of the trophic (feeding) when the varicose the expansion causes a decrease of the stop temperature, the patients complain of sensitivity to cold in the legs.
- Ulcers trophic on the background of edema of the legs look like imperfections of the skin with jagged edges. It is a complication that tells the long course of the disease.
According to the clinical picture of the disease-varicose veins are 3 steps.
- The clearing. Of the unpleasant sensations, not, or, they are minimal. When the grip extended on the feet is possible to the discomfort. On the skin, patients may report the appearance of spider veins, which are formed because of the hair extensions. If you experience swelling, stop, what are quickly after the rest.
- Subcompensated. During the inspection of the subcutaneous veins are stretched, you can find them as dense tyazhi. You will receive a clinic of varicose vein disease: the patients complain of a sensation of bloating in the shins. Swelling occur at the end of the day, or after the charge, disappear after the rest. In the night worried about muscle cramps. Of the Possible neurological symptoms: numbness of the skin, "goose bumps".
- Decompensation. At this stage of varicose veins of the swelling does not disappear after sleep or rest in a supine position, little by little, they rise above. Long-term results in a disturbance of the nutrition of the skin. It is brittle, dry, the hair falls, the homes of the hyperpigmentation. Subcutaneous fiber compaction. Even minor injuries heal with difficulty, are formed ulcers.
The degree of chronic venous insufficiency
Long-term varicose veins cause chronic impairment of the veins of the lower limbs. The passage of degrees link with the appearance of pathological symptoms. Widespread the following classification:
- 0 degree distinguished by the absence of clinical manifestations;
- 1 degree is characterized by the appearance of a syndrome of "heavy legs";
- 2 the degree of swelling ominous the persistent nature begins with the involvement of the skin, the subcutaneous tissue (hyperpigmentation, lipodermatosclerosis);
- 3 the degree of the chronic venous disease vascular disorders economic if serious, which lead to the formation of venous ulcers of the leg.
Not compensated for the varicose disease in violation of the exit due to the expansion of the lumen of the veins leads to the development of complications. At the onset of serious symptoms should consult a doctor.
- Thrombophlebitis. The slowing down of blood circulation causes the thickening of the blood, the vascular wall when the varicose veins become more fragile. These conditions lead to the formation of a thrombus parietal, sometimes completely blocking the skyline of vienna. Upstream of thrombophlebitis is: acute, subacute, and chronic. The most vivid flows-acute: increase of temperature, pain in varicose veins, oedema. Touch the foot becomes colder. When the defeat of the superficial veins, you can palpation to discover sites painful of the expansion. On the skin, the red visible band.
- Thrombosis of the deep veins of the leg. The complication of varicose veins not manifest itself immediately, patients can become accustomed to a swelling of the leg, muscle pain and allow symptoms, without attention. Often a blood clot does not replace a vein completely. The most dangerous complication margin of a blood clot and a skid in the bloodstream. In this case, it may develop fatal pulmonary embolism.
- Ulcer trophic. The violation of churn due to the expansion of the lumen of the veins when the varicose veins leads to trophic change. These wounds are difficult to correct. They economic the door of entry for secondary infections.
- The bleeding. Varicose veins causes the fragility of the wall, they are torn apart for minor injuries. Bleeding: spontaneous, traumatic, sub-cutaneous or external.
The worsening of varicose veins occur for different reasons. They include:
- The blood clots due to the loss of moisture, and insufficient drinking mode. The more strongly because it's "cheek" in the summer months, contributing to the deterioration of the state changed veins.
- The change of hormonal levels. Progesterone relaxes the walls of veins pregnancy. Increases the weight of the body, producing physiological changes in the blood composition – this is why moms are at risk of the worsening of varicose veins.
- The increase of the mass of the body. Increases the load, produces a dilation of the veins and disrupted the flow of blood.
- The appearance of obstacles in the pelvic region. The compression of the vessels occurs during a pregnancy or a tumor of the abdominal cavity.
The exacerbation of the leaky as the capacity available symptoms of the varicose disease or the emergence of new more severe signs. All the changes in the health of veins, you need to pay attention, to time to identify the causes of the degradation and start the fight with them.
Timely started treatment of varicose veins of the lower limbs compensates for the disease and prevent serious complications.
The conservative treatment of varicose veins comprises the application of a compression knitwear and medication. Compression further subdivided into preventive and curative. This type of lingerie works as external of the carcass. By tightening the legs, it aims to help the flow of blood in the veins of the members. The degree of compression (compression) linen choose according to the task that must solve the wear. The prevention shirt prevents the appearance of signs of disease or slowing its development. Therapeutic divided into 4 classes according to the degree of compression depending on the severity of varicose veins. Advice on the selection gives phlebology. The drug treatment of varicose veins does not cure the disease, but only slows down its development, and prevents the aggravation. Medicines used topically or systemically, they relate to:
- the wall of a vein, lead to the tone and to avoid its extension;
- status of blood – medicines that reduce blood viscosity, prevent thrombosis;
- for the relief of the pain during the varicose veins prescribe local pain relievers, in the form of ointment.
The surgical treatment of varicose veins can eliminate the mechanism of the disease. The development of technician-operation helps to avoid interventions that result in the persistence of the cosmetic defect and for a long time retard the patients in a hospital bed. The increasing development receive the techniques that you can perform without prolonged hospitalization. The manipulation is performed under ultrasound control.
Stripping. The essence of the operation upon the varicose veins is to make 2 incisions system vienna, in one of them is the probe. Its secure the wire to one end of vienna, and then remove it with hit the site. Depending on the location of the application to distinguish between the long and the short of Stripping.
Photocoagulation laser. In this technique, the fight against the varicose vein disease through the skin puncture in the vein introducing the laser which is welded in place between its walls.
The echo-guided sclerotherapy. In the vein, the injection of the drug, calling its hardening. If after the first manipulation skylight varicose veins to advanced-a container-covered, not completely, it pass again.
Scleroobliteration in a container, insert a catheter, by which, in the light penetrates into the substance sclerosant, which leads to the degradation of the walls of the veins and closure of its level.
Varicose veins of the lower limbs is not a problem that is only aesthetic. This is a serious disease that requires timely initiation of therapy.